Education and the French presidential election.

This Sunday, 23rd April and then on Sunday 7th May, French voters go to the polls to elect a new head of state. This will be followed shortly afterwards with parliamentary elections on the 11th and 18th June.

All the leading candidates agree that France’s unitary national education service; ‘l’éducation nationale’, faces many challenges and needs reform. So what are their competing visions in this important policy area?

This post briefly compares the stated education programmes of the 5 candidates scoring highest in the opinion polls and from left to right:

  • Jean-Luc Mélenchon (La France Insoumise)
  • Benoît Hamon (Parti Socialiste)
  • Emmanuel Macron (En Marche)
  • François Fillon (Les Républicains)
  • Marine Le Pen (Front National)

Only two of these will make it through to the second round and currently this is a very close call between four of the candidates (Mélenchon, Macron, Fillon and Le Pen) who are polling at very similar levels.

In terms of additional investment, 3 of the candidates have committed to training and recruiting more teaching and support staff with Mélenchon promising an additional 60,000 posts, Hamon 40,000 and Macron 9,000 over their term of office. Fillon proposes to introduce performance-related pay, greater institutional autonomy over teacher recruitment and more school-based training.

Macron and Hamon have both set themselves specific targets for maximum class sizes in primary schools and in designated disadvantaged areas: 25/20 from Hamon and 12 (infants) from Macron who is also proposing greater incentives for staff to work in disadvantaged areas. Hamon wants to offer the option of nursery education to children aged 2 and above in disadvantaged areas and Fillon suggests compulsory education should start at age 5 rather than 6.

Mélenchon is in favour of a fully funded national programme of extra-curricular activities for all school students, Hamon proposes a 25% increase in such activities including a new ‘Arts for all at school’ scheme and Fillon also suggests an extension of after-school homework clubs. Le Pen would end all ‘cultural’ or mother tongue language classes.

Fillon and Le Pen are both keen to introduce school uniform rules and Macron wants to ban the use of mobile phones in primary and secondary schools. All the candidates are in favour of some kind of civic or military service for 16-25 year olds – whether compulsory and military (Macron and Le Pen) compulsory and civic (Mélenchon) or voluntary (Hamon and Fillon).

All but two of the candidates (Hamon and Macron) are critical of the recent major reform of the secondary curriculum and would revisit it. This reform saw schools gaining more autonomy to manage some of the weekly hours of teaching using more individual support and thematic interdisciplinary project work covering 2 different themes per year such as: health, the environment, ancient civilizations etc.  with a view to helping students make more sense of their studies. A new ‘Brevet’ qualification for 15 year olds was introduced, graded through a combination of continuous assessment of a common core, some oral exams and written exams in maths, science, history, geography, technology, French and moral and civic studies.

In upper secondary education, Mélenchon wants to extend the vocational baccalaureate from 3 to 4 years and to create a national careers service. Hamon wants parity of esteem for all bac routes and Macron is keen to extend the bilingual and European streams while reducing the number of compulsory subjects in the bac and introduce more continuous assessment. Fillon also values vocational education and training, seeing this as part of a strategy to reduce unemployment. Le Pen wants to introduce vocational streams from age 14 and sees the bac as a tool for selection and guidance with more emphasis on basic skills and an end to all interdisciplinary projects.

Mélenchon also offers specific policies on Higher Education, with a plan to abolish university fees with effect from this Autumn as well as to create more affordable student accommodation.

Each of these candidates, if elected, would fully expect to be able to shape the system and implement their specific proposals across the board because France still has an education service run along national lines.

One thing is clear, whether they come from the left, the right or the centre and whatever their policy differences, none of the candidates for France’s highest political office is advocating the ‘Anglo Saxon’ competition and ‘choice’ market reforms which have taken hold in the US and UK. There is little appetite in France for anything which might undermine the idea of a single national education service based on national values, with national standards and serving national objectives.

See also:

Market autonomy or democratic autonomy? (May 2016)

Scale and efficiency in upper secondary education (October 2015)

Educational inequality in France (May 2015)

Inspectors make the case for comprehensive colleges (January 2015)

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Shaping an alternative education policy.

The Labour Party National Policy Forum Consultation 2017.

Labour is currently consulting on its Early Years, Education and Skills policies and the consultation document merits the attention of anyone who is interested in developing alternatives to the current direction of travel in English education policy.

The consultation paper starts with a vision and then poses key questions in each of the main policy areas; early years, schools, further education and adult skills and children’s social care and safeguarding. This response offers a few initial thoughts on the broader vision while being mainly concerned with post-16 education policy.

The vision: egalitarian, social and economic

The very first sentence defines education for self-realisation in broadly egalitarian terms:

“…to make sure that everyone, whatever their background, is given the opportunity and skills to reach their full potential and live a good life.”

This section goes on to describe the objective of “a world class education system…excellent schools and well-funded services…” and to highlight the gaps in attainment between lower-income children and their wealthier peers which “are evident before they even start school”.

Both economic and social imperatives are addressed; the general aspirations of ‘reaching one’s full potential’ and living ‘a good life’ are counterbalanced with statements about how essential education is to future economic health and t achieving a skilled workforce.

Going beyond the broad aim of giving everyone the opportunity to “live the life they want to” this section could benefit from more specific examples of how education can help us to achieve our economic, social and personal objectives. It could offer some aspirations around education’s potential to develop active citizens, shape communities, promote social solidarity and help us cope with changes and challenges.

The need for a system

There is also the commitment to create a National Education Service (NES) “open to all throughout their lives”. This is a good overarching policy framework which could be used to signpost solutions to many of the problems of our fragmented and divided education ‘non-system’. The idea of mobilising all publicly funded education providers to serve the whole community could be a real vote-winner if it can be attractively fleshed-out. Using the NHS paradigm for education implies a big shift in the way we think about our schools and colleges. People will need to understand what a National Education Service might look like in their area and how it might benefit them. This requires concrete examples of how a fairer and more effective system could be assembled from the somewhat dysfunctional set of elements we currently have.

In order to make the case for an NES, there also needs to be a clear critique of the marketization of education. Providers in all phases in England are operating in a market where they compete for students and under a high-stakes accountability regime where any performance below average is seen as failure. The school section suggests the need for “a permanent infrastructure of support services to help them function effectively” and “evidence-based…sustainable school improvement” but more work needs to be done on how to build such a high-performing and supportive system starting from where we are now. The question of balancing local or regional democratic accountability with a national service standard will also need to be addressed.

Modernising and improving access to further education and adult skills

This section rightly highlights the under-funding of 16-19, further and adult education following several years of disproportionate cuts. A commitment to re-balancing per capita investment between pre-16 and post-16 students would certainly be welcome. As with the schools section, more is needed on how we might move from a market based on competition to a system based on networking and collaborating.

The critique of current apprenticeship policy is welcome, but this section seems to equate further education with skills training and therefore assumes purely economic objectives for the sector. The overall narrative has nothing to say about what the educational aims of a 16-19 phase should be and there are no questions about what young adults could expect from a National Education Service. Surely, the promise of the good life and the wider social aspirations sketched out in the first section should apply as much to sixth formers, FE students and adult learners as to their younger selves. Older teenagers may be closer to the labour market but they are also closer to full, active citizenship and adult social responsibilities.

To address the questions:

Does our further education system provide for the skills we need in a future economy?

We need to establish educational objectives for all 16-19 year olds which include an entitlement to a broad curriculum including a range of subject domains, literacy, numeracy, citizenship and work-related learning including work placements or internships. The ‘future economy’, just like the present one, requires people to have a good grounding in foundational knowledge as well as experience of using wider skills including communication, collaborative, creative and research skills as well as sector-specific skills.

How can we improve access for adults that want to re-skill and develop the quality of workplace learning? What role can universities play in this? How can we raise the quality of apprenticeships? What can we do to address the skills gap and promote better strategic planning for apprenticeship and training? What role do University Technical Colleges have to play?

Colleges and universities are already working with employers to develop advanced and higher level apprenticeships for over-18’s which can work, further qualifications and progression opportunities. This is where apprenticeship investment should be directed. Adults could be offered an entitlement to further education or training throughout life, prioritising for public funding those who have received the least or achieved the least.

For under-18’s, the priority should be making a broad and stimulating educational offer available to all – including an entitlement to good work-related learning. This should be available wherever they are studying and whatever their prior achievement or skills levels. Low-level apprenticeships for 16 year olds with low prior achievement are not on their own a good route to progression or higher skill employment.

Compelling ‘signature’ policies needed

This consultation is the first step towards developing policies which can be put to the electorate with a view to winning power. As well as deciding how much additional investment can be found for education from total public spending, any party also needs some concrete ideas which symbolise their approach well and can win votes.

What might such ‘signature’ policies look like, based on an ambitious, egalitarian and life-long vision of a National Education Service? I would suggest two:

  • Create a National Baccalaureate for all young people to aim for – generally by 19. This would be a single coherent national framework which would accredit a range of subject and work-related learning and skills. Achieving a full diploma would be recognised as a challenging and valued milestone for all young adults and a passport to further progression.
  • Extend the National Citizens Service to include all volunteering and civic activity with the opportunity to ‘earn’ a fee-discount for university or adult education based on the number of hours of activity. This would be a mutual ‘something for something’ way to move towards lower fees while promoting community development and cohesion at the same time.

The consultation period closes on 31st May 2017 and submissions can be made until then via: www.policyforum.labour.org.uk

See also:

Going Beyond (October 2016)

Education: what’s it all for? (January 2016)

Developing Labour’s vision for education (September 2015)

Starting to think about a National Education Service (September 2015)

For a National Education Service (July 2015)

 

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From ‘slumming’ to solidarity.

The evolution of responses to urban poverty and inequality.

Part 2. From London to Chicago and back again

Two selective and interlinked chronologies:

London

1884: Toynbee Hall in Whitechapel was founded by Canon Samuel Barnett and his wife Henrietta Barnett (1851-1936).

1889: Charles Booth published the first edition of Life and Labour of the People in London while working at Toynbee Hall and with the help of Toynbee Hall residents, School Board visitors and other researchers, including Beatrice Potter who later married Sidney Webb.

1889: Mansfield House in Plaistow was established by students of Mansfield College, Oxford. This settlement pioneered an early version of free legal aid ‘The Poor Man’s Lawyer’, organised orchestras, choirs, dramatic and leadership development, ‘brotherhood and civic societies’ encouraging participation in politics. It’s first warden Percy Alden was also a Fabian and a councillor on West Ham Borough Council and later became MP for Tottenham, first as a Liberal and then for Labour.

1892: The associated Canning Town Women’s Settlement was established. Its first warden was Rebecca Cheetham, serving until 1917 and also active in public life. From 1903 to 1939 she was a co-opted member of the Education Committee of West Ham Borough Council, England’s first Labour controlled council (from 1898), overseeing the rapid development of new schools and colleges.

1903: William Beveridge joins Toynbee Hall and works with Barnett on unemployment relief.

1905-1909: Beatrice Webb and Charles Booth serve on the Royal Commission on the Poor Law with Webb producing a minority report advocating minimum levels of welfare.

1910: Clement Attlee becomes Toynbee Hall secretary for a year, and wrote on ‘The teaching of citizenship in public schools’ for the Toynbee Record. His 1920 book ‘The Social Worker’ drew on his experience at Toynbee Hall.

Chicago

1888: Jane Addams visited Toynbee Hall in Whitechapel having previously been to London in 1883 and been deeply shocked by the poverty she saw in East London.

1889: Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull House, ‘a community of university women’ in the Near West Side of Chicago, an ethnically diverse community of recent European immigrants; Italian, German, Jewish, Greek, Irish, Polish etc. The aims of Hull House were: to focus on the causes of poverty through Research (gathering information, mapping inequality), Reform (eg: through campaigning, legislation or local government) and Residence (living and working within the community).

Hull House helped to establish the first juvenile court, the first public playground, bathhouse and public gymnasium and influenced legislation on child labour, work safety, unemployment pay and immigrant rights and campaigned on women’s suffrage. The settlement also organised a day-care centre and kindergarten as well as a public dispensary, equivalent to today’s food banks.

By 1920 there were around 400 settlement houses across the U.S. drawing inspiration from Hull House.

1939: Saul Alinsky started community organising in the Back of the Yards district in Chicago. He helped to create an overarching community organisation, The Back of the Yards Neighbourhood Council (BYNC), made up of representatives of community groups providing strength in numbers and solidarity for collective bargaining and to win agreed demands.

1940: Alinsky founded the Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) which promotes community organising across many urban areas of the U.S.

1985: Barack Obama worked as a community organiser with the Developing Communities Project in Chicago’s South Side.

1996: Obama was elected as an Illinois state senator, a U.S. senator in 2004 and U.S. president in 2008.

London

1942: The Beveridge report identified the Five Evils of: Squalor, Ignorance, Want, Idleness and Disease and proposes substantial welfare reforms.

1989: Citizens Organising Foundation, now Citizens UK, was formed by Neil Jameson who was trained with the IAF.

1996: The East London Communities Organisation (TELCO) was formed at an assembly of over 1,300 representatives of 30 member organisations as a chapter of Citizens UK. Successful campaigns include that for the London Living Wage, Community Land Trusts, Safe Havens, Refugees Welcome and organising regular interventions aimed at holding elected politicians to account.

While there are far fewer university settlements in London today than a century ago, Toynbee Hall is still active in advocating against poverty and for social change. Its vision is of a future free from poverty:

“Our mission is to support people and communities to break down the barriers that trap them in poverty. We act with ambition, integrity and with the courage of our convictions, using evidence-based social action to shape what we do and give us an authoritative voice to challenge, influence and make a difference. Inquisitive and collaborative, we seek out relationships with people, communities and partners to develop, as well as to share our knowledge and understanding; facilitating and supporting them to design their own solutions to tackling poverty. We are open-minded, inclusive and transparent; learning from what we do; seeking fresh and alternative perspectives to shape and influence our practice.”

Different perspectives?

Although there is a continuity of values and approach in the various traditions of urban social action, the practitioners did not always highlight it themselves.

George Lansbury knew the work of Toynbee Hall well but never worked there himself, unlike Clement Attlee, his successor as Labour leader. In his autobiography, Lansbury remarks: “The one solid achievement of Toynbee Hall has been the filling up of the bureaucracy of government and administration with men and women who went to East London full of enthusiasm and zeal for the welfare of the masses and discovered the advancement of their own interests.” He hadn’t always been so critical, but the scorn was real.

Alinsky had similar criticisms of Hull House. A more ‘professionalised’ Hull House was still active and influential in Chicago when Alinsky started community organising. He frequently criticised the methods of the settlement houses. In a 1983 interview, Sidney Hyman who worked with Alinsky in the BYNC and whose sister had been a Hull House resident summarised his objections: “Going to work for Jane Addams at Hull House was a romantic thing to do for young, sensitive women. [Their noble purpose] was to help, but it was always the Lady Bountifuls who were doing the helping. Now Saul comes along and turns it around and sort of sets the whole Hull House idea on its head. He says he doesn’t want the ‘hellfare’ worker, he doesn’t want the Lady Bountiful; he wants people to help themselves and that became a very romantic idea.”

Addams and Alinsky can be characterised as representing opposite poles on the spectrum of social engagement. Addams offers a more fluid, responsive, non-ideological approach, open to the possibility of different paths to success while not against confrontation when deemed necessary. She talks in co-operative, relational terms, always seeking connections between the private and public spheres. Alinsky sees every campaign as a competition or a confrontation; a battle to be won by ensuring that your side builds its collective power. He speaks in goal-oriented terms and uses the language of warfare with ‘tactics’ and ‘victory’ against an ‘enemy’.

Alinsky’s tactics are rooted in his understanding of a ‘real’ world of constant struggle and his tactics can appear ‘stronger’ as well as more pragmatic. Addams herself was very critical of well-meaning but ineffective charity work which was not based on an understanding of the needs of the community.

Both emphasise the need to listen and learn from people and to give the disenfranchised a genuine voice and both were absolutely determined to bring about a fairer, more just world. Alinsky’s privileges confrontation whereas Addams sees the choice of less antagonistic means as prefiguring a shared vision of a better world; the way we get there is part of creating the kind of destination we want.

Barack Obama’s reflections on his time as a community organizer in Chicago seems to bridge this gap:

“Be open with the issues. Include the community instead of going behind their back, sometimes you need to include people you don’t like. You’ve got to bring people together. If you exclude people you’re only weakening yourself.”

Obama was one of the two major progressive politicians who went on to lead their countries and regarded their first-hand experience of community work as formative and decisive, whether in London or Chicago:

“The social service movement of modern times…has arisen out of a deep discontent with society as at present constituted…It is the expression of the desire for social justice, for freedom and beauty, and for the better apportionment of all things that make up a good life.” Clement Attlee

“It’s by working with this organisation and this community that I found my calling…The measure of my life would be public service.” Barack Obama.

The role of education

Hull House always had a strong educational purpose, organising plays, free concerts and lectures and discussion circles (eg: the Plato Club), classes in language, literature, history, art and domestic activities as well as cultural events and clubs for children and adults. It took its research role very seriously, producing the ‘Hull House Maps and Papers’ which researched demographics, including ethnicity, housing, working and sanitation conditions with the same concern for accuracy and comprehensiveness as that shown by Booth in his maps of London poverty.

Hull House had strong links with the ‘Chicago School’ of Sociology and became the urban branch campus of the University of Illinois at Chicago and is still maintained as a museum by the university.

There are parallels in London in the educational work of Toynbee Hall, Mansfield House and other settlements. They can also be seen in the development of the urban studies think tank, the Institute of Community Studies, founded in 1954, now known as the Young Foundation and actively involved in social innovation.

Citizens UK established an Institute for Community Organising in 2010 as part of its Centre for Civil Society to train community organisers. TELCO has many educational institutions in membership and many of its key activists come from schools, colleges or universities. For a few years, Queen Mary University of London offered a Masters in Community Organising and a central mission of the University of East London (UEL) is to be London’s leading university for civic engagement:

“…extending an invitation to all our students and staff to participate in the ‘living lab’ that east London represents, becoming ‘best in class’ in confronting the very challenges that our students face, providing them with the opportunity to become change agents who help to transform their own communities, working with our communities to deliver applied and sustainable solutions to the societal and environmental challenges that we face, empowering our students and staff to become ambassadors and active citizens for the long term benefit of their communities.” (UEL corporate plan)

The many challenges which face us require this kind of educational response, one where the connection is made between learning, reflecting and acting and which should have at its heart the public university and a network of other civic institutions. Such a network might combine the best practices and traditions of a University Settlement, a Danish Folk school, an Extramural Department or Adult Education Institute, a Further Education College, a Community Centre and a ‘Think-and-Do Tank’.

Such a co-ordinated response needs to draw on community involvement, equality and trade union campaigning as well as on the best of rigorous research and teaching. This local engagement is not about single-issue indoctrination but needs to be anchored in core values of equality, democracy, solidarity and mutual respect while not shying away from differences and debate.

At our college ‘Obama Day’ in 2009, I asked the audience to imagine what we could do for ourselves and our community if every one of us became community organisers, even for just one hour a week. What could we achieve with nearly 2,700 hours of concerted community activity per week; the equivalent of approximately 80 full time community workers?

Community activity could become a central part of our educational culture. Instead of simply encouraging our students to engage in occasional volunteering or charity projects we could embed Service Learning in all our school, college and university programmes. The educational and social impact of making Service Learning part of the educational experience of all young people and adults would be phenomenal. Education could place itself at the heart of building greater social cohesion and responding to community needs and could support a renaissance in social and community development.

This is the second of 2 posts based on a talk given to the East London History Workshop on 19th January 2017.

See also:

From Toynbee to TELCO – via Chicago, part 1. From settlement to social activism

Barack Obama community organiser

Jane Addams and Toynbee Hall

Women and the Settlement Movement  by Katharine Bentley Beauman (Radcliffe Press, 1996)

Slumming – Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London by Seth Koven (Princeton, 2006)

‘Community Organizing: Addams and Alinsky’ by Maurice Hamington

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Informed careers education.

Using our data to inform excellent careers education information advice and guidance.

In common with all post-16 providers, we want all our students to be ambitious and progress to positive outcomes. It’s one of our key values – Ambition: we have the highest expectations of everyone. We are very proud of our high standards of careers education, information, advice and guidance (CEIAG) and last year 91% of our students who applied progressed to university. Our data confirms that more disadvantaged students progress to university from our college than from any other provider in England and more young people progress to university from our college than from any other Newham sixth form.

Given that many of our students are only with us for 2 years, we are having conversations with them about their aspirations before they even join us. Pretty much every interaction includes a focus on planning for progression; whether at open days, interviews, induction, enrolment and from then on. Helping to inform and guide young people through these big decisions is a natural and integral part of their post-16 educational journey.

Some of the more formal ways we do this include: careers guidance from specialist careers advisors, exploring career options and pathways including through work placements, visits and internships, an explicit tutorial unit focused on progression, help with the university, apprenticeship or job application process, mentoring, coaching and interview practice and, where appropriate, help preparing for specific admission tests: BMAT, UKCAT, LNAT etc.

Everything we do has to start from the needs of individuals, building on their own understanding and relationship with society and the economy and we need to see this work in terms of developing young people’s self-knowledge and self-development. Inevitably, this is inextricably linked to their identity, their self-image and their sense of status and worth.

Young people’s choices will be influenced by their own experience of study and work, their level of responsibility and self-confidence, their resilience and their appetite for risk-taking. They will be thinking about the support they need and the networks they can draw on from key people in their lives: family, friends, professionals, colleagues and mentors. They will also have to face a number of fears and anxieties about possible obstacles to success; real or perceived.

We need to remember that our students’ journeys are not always smooth linear paths from ambition through to progression and we need to keep as many doors open as possible and allow for the possibility of changing routes.

Our careers work must be integrated and embedded into the student experience and we need to avoid deterministic assumptions about fixed pathways or simplistic binary choices such as ‘HE versus work’. We need to bust the many myths which young people pick up about their possible options and help them to embrace the possibility of change and manage a degree of uncertainty about the future.

The aggregated data we generate and use are about groups but they are built from individual personal decisions and achievements – each of which is highly specific and contingent. Those data help us answer key questions about our student journeys:

  • Who? The demographics of different choices and pathways, by gender, by ethnicity, by learning needs…
  • From where? Based on students’ prior institutions, their prior achievement, the course or course type they have followed…
  • How? What do we know about their journeys, the support they did or didn’t receive, the development or enrichment activities they engaged in and how they reached their destination, eg: first choice, insurance, extra, clearing etc…
  • To where? What their first and later destinations are; what university degree course, at which university, what job, in which sector…

The data we collect can help reveal important underlying issues and trends, inform our practice and support improvement. While they can answer many questions we need to beware of assuming causation where we have only found correlation.

We can use these data to target or prioritise particular relationships with key stakeholders, for example with a local university with a great course in a field which is not currently attracting its share of applicants from your sixth form.

We can also use these data to benchmark against ourselves and others, for example if we are not getting the same proportions of equally qualified applicants into similar courses.

We can use these data to help us develop our careers resources, processes and staff training and to work with others to share good practice.

Ultimately, we also need these data in order to demonstrate value added and improvement but we need to be very clear about what we mean by success. Setting ourselves arbitrary or inappropriate success measures does not help our students, so ‘increasing the proportion of applicants who progress to their first or insurance choice rather than through clearing’ is a better target than ‘getting more students into university X’.

The following are all possible fruitful sources of data to inform practice:

  • Those students who haven’t progressed or remain NEET.
  • Those students who progressed to apprenticeships or employment rather than higher education.
  • Those students who delay entry to university and progressed more than a year after leaving.
  • Those students who progressed having started at college at Foundation or Intermediate level.
  • Those students who progressed having come to the UK at 15 or 16.
  • Those students with learning difficulties or disabilities.

Our own data need to be held in a single authoritative and up-to-date database to make it easy to analyse and question. We also need data from elsewhere: from government statistics of course but also from partner organisations. This is where we need to develop better data sharing protocols and systems as we still do not have any entitlement to comprehensive data about the achievements and journeys of our former students. The occasional letter from a university informing us of the graduation of one of our former students only begs the question ‘what about all the others we know attended your institution?’

Data are essential tools to help us inform the vital, individual and human-centred business of doing careers work. We need to see our data set as a rich, dynamic seam to mine; starting points for further questions which can help us better understand and enhance our contribution to young people’s decision-making in a complex world.

Based on my talk at the ‘Excelling at Careers Education and guidance’ conference on 29th March 2017 with Modern Government.

See also:

Is vocational education in England really ‘inadequate’? (Jan 2016)

University progression for the NewVIc class of 2015 (Dec 2015)

NewVIc breaks all its university progression records (Sep 2015)

Where do all our A level students go? (Jan 2015)

Vocational education: rejecting the narrative of failure (Jan 2015)

How to achieve high university progression rates (June 2014)

 

 

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The Mathematics of Survival


Poetry gives our language the wings to fly and in difficult times we need strong wings. Starting with just the alphabet, the poetic form allows our ideas to soar. Just like those in our previous anthologies, the student poems in this new collection launch themselves off the page with power and passion – refusing to be tethered.

Thank you to all these NewVIc poets for their contribution to an algebra of humanity starting from a mathematics of survival. Thank you also to Joelle Taylor, Kat Lewis and English PEN for their continued support and commitment to helping our students develop their work.

 “This is a book for those who read over the borders of a page. This is a book for people who write in the margins. This is a book for people who live there too.”  Joelle Taylor, facilitator, English PEN

“The sparkling talent in this group of young writers is fed by their fresh and curious eyes. I believe in a future where these voices are loud.” Kat Lewis – facilitator, English PEN

“The dark vision conjured by the brilliant writers featured in this collection is not an easy one to process…but the creativity and bravery of the young people whose eyes we see through in the Mathematics of Survival is a powerful lesson in resilience to all of us.” Rebekah Murrell – Acting head of programmes, English PEN

Here is a very brief selection from the collection:

 

This is for

The boy who sits quietly at his desk

In the centre of a battlefield

Studying the mathematics of survival…

From ‘For Hope’ by Abad Mohammad

 

…This is for

Those in London with little to share

Climbing a ladder of life that is barely there

Getting madder every day

Forgetting the words they were about to say

From ‘Working Classes’ by Jack Galbraith

 

He needs a compass to navigate the channel

Gets so lost he cannot untangle

When he sails on her seas

He just goes with the breeze

Lost in the Bermuda triangle.

From ‘Navigation’ by Yusuf Mohammed

 

I am made of mosaic memories

Even though they are cracked-up memories

If I am a stained glass window

One of the panes is broken

There is a hole in the centre of me

Left by a bullet that scattered my family

From ‘Stained glass’ by Vinushan Jegatheesan

 

Some of the poems relate specifically to the refugee experience:

Day 105…Now here I am in this boat, falling apart and broken, like us. We wanted to get out and now here we are: lost in the vast emptiness. Alone. …

From ‘Dear Diary’ by Rebecca Cavanagh

 

…I come from the red sea seeping along dustry streets

I am a stone thrown in to the crimson tides

We are the ripples in the red sea

Reaching your shores.

From ‘Humanity’ by Naveed Khan

 

The constraints of the ‘alphabet poem’ also stimulated some great work from A to Z:

Alone.

Bloodshed…she dragged her feet across the dry, barren wastelands –

Yelling, screaming crying…but no one came.

Zoned, this entire land was nowhere, isolated from the reaches…

From ‘Is lar nishtay jadki lapari’ (‘Nowhere for the child to go’) by Ikra Nawaz

 

An introduction to the cruelty of human beings

Because we all seem to live life looking through an idealistic and naïve spyglass crafted by our super-ego

Can it be that our own values divide us rather than unite us?

Vanquish the notion that equality is unachievable,

Working as a collective does not generate hate –

Xenophobia does!

You must realise your potential and importance,

Zealousness will do the rest.

From ‘The humanistic alphabet’ by Hannah Maria Khan

 

Creative beings

We are writers…

From ‘We are writers’ by Minal Khan, Esa Ahmed and Habib Rahman

 

The Mathematics of Survival is the latest in our series of collaborations with English PEN which includes Brave New Words and (un)mute. It features contributions from NewVIc students from across the college’s programmes including the Foundation level Step-Up course. The full collection is available as The Mathematics of Survival ISBN: 978-0-9957234-0-5

See also:

Young poets ‘write the wrong’ (June 2015)

Seeking refuge in poetry (September 2016)

Young people debate free speech in the House of Lords (December 2016)

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The University of Nowhere

Announcement: April 1st 2017

As the United Kingdom launches the process of leaving the European Union with little clarity about its destination, a new kind of higher education provider launched today is set to re-define the university destination.

The University of Nowhere will break free from outdated notions of a university for either ‘somewhere’ or ‘anywhere’ and will specifically aspire to prepare its students to be ‘nowhere’. It’s mission will be truly aligned to an ‘exit’-ential paradigm, inspired by the Prime minister’s words: “If you are a citizen of the world you are a citizen of nowhere”.

Future citizens of Nowhere will absorb ‘nowhere’ values of sub-democracy, infra-equality, dislocated-universalism and dis-respect. They will be equipped with a toolkit of powerful ‘nowhere’ skills to help them achieve un-mastery, in-coherence and post-social dis-integration.

Aiming to be truly beyond-trend and well ahead of the curve, the university will help to establish a new zeitgeist for our post-diverse world, moving beyond thought-leadership – beyond thought itself. The university will be neither fact-factory nor wisdom-workshop but post-factual and un-wise.

Going forward, departments led by eminent professors Zamyatin, Huxley and Blair will specialise in the radical new disciplines of Fake News studies, Science Denial, Linguistic Obfuscation, Disruptive Logic and Fuzzy Innovation.

The project is a collaboration between the University of Poppleton (prop. Laurie Taylor at T.H.E.) and the Accademia San Seriffe, drawing on the degree awarding reputation of Chump University, North Virginia.

The university’s inspirational motto will be ‘Going Nowhere…Fast’

To facilitate communication, all teaching will be in the universal language of Esperanto.

Courses are open to all but please check the date of this announcement before applying.

See also: University Gold (October 2016)

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From Toynbee to TELCO via Chicago.

The evolution of responses to urban poverty and inequality.

Part 1. From settlement to social activism

Living and working in East London, I am interested in how our part of the city has been shaped by its past, how today’s inequality and social relations have grown from yesterday’s and how our history is intimately connected with that of other parts of the world. My interest also stems from having worked with The East London Citizens Organisation (TELCO) while at Tower Hamlets College in the late 1990’s and again more recently with London Citizens and Newham Citizens in Newham.

In early 2009, we ran an ‘Obama Day’ at Newham Sixth Form College (NewVIc) to celebrate the inauguration of Barack Obama as US president. I gave a short presentation to students on ‘Barack Obama – community organiser’ making the links between the East London settlement movement in the 19th century and the development of community organising in Chicago in the 20th century and back to London again via London Citizens.

The settlement movement in East London has played an important role in the development of social action to raise and address issues of poverty and inequality. This has been enriched by a transatlantic dialogue with similar settlements in the United States and both moved well beyond their paternalist and philanthropic roots.

We can trace the development of community action and community organising in East London from the university settlements created in the late 19th century via the urban settlement houses in the US which they inspired, back to East London with the community organising of (TELCO), now part of London Citizens.

Any historical account is partial and selective and this particular one is a narrative which links apparently contrasting responses to social inequality; following the thread from the 19th century through to the 21st.

I am aware that both the settlement movement and community organising have sometimes been critiqued as inadequate or apolitical responses to inequality, addressing symptoms rather than causes. Here I am taking a broad historical overview and touching on the class, gender and power relations which come into play when the better off choose to help the worse off.

This post sets the context and introduces the main characters and organisations. In the second post, I give a chronology of the main developments and some of the debates. I also look at the role of education and educational institutions in mapping and studying poverty, supporting, empowering and bettering people, promoting social change and social mobility and I suggest that a public education system which tries to address the needs of its local community could contribute to genuine urban and civic renewal in the 21st century.

Context:

The starting point is the desperate poverty in London and Chicago in the late 19th century; these two major industrial and trading cities both experienced rapid economic and social change leading to a massive concentration of both wealth and poverty, overcrowded, insanitary housing conditions, exploitation, malnutrition, poor health and low life expectancy.

The high levels of poverty in parts of both cities increased the cultural and geographical distance between people of different classes. The settlement movement can be seen as an early effort to bridge the social chasm between rich and poor, building on the philanthropic traditions of ‘visiting’ and charity work. For the well-to-do volunteers, this ‘slumming’ or ‘poverty tourism’ could also be dangerous and regarded as transgressive and subversive of the established order.

Charity and philanthropy are based on an asymmetry of power and privilege, they may also have religious ‘missionary’ roots, but they also involve compassion and genuine feelings of solidarity, often expressed in gendered terms as sisterhood / brotherhood or sometimes as ‘fellowship’.  Women in 19th century England had little power and their desire to make a difference to others were seen by many as undermining or threatening the very unequal ‘givens’ of Victorian society – the status quo in terms of women’s roles, family structure and the bigger social structure. The settlement story is often one of ‘new women’, often single, finding ways to respond to social inequality and testing the limits of the social order.

Key people and organisations:

Some of the key figures in the lineage are Samuel Barnett (1844-1913) and Henrietta Barnett (1851-1936), Jane Addams (1860-1935), Saul Alinsky (1909-1972). Other characters include: Charles Booth (1840-1916), Rebecca Cheetham (1852-1939), George Lansbury (1859-1940), Beatrice Webb (1859-1943), William Beveridge (1879-1963), Clement Attlee (1883-1967) and Barack Obama (b. 1961).

Rather than a sharp change from paternalism and charity to egalitarianism and campaigning, this is a story of a progression from philanthropy to solidarity, from the Barnetts at Toynbee Hall in Whitechapel via Jane Addams at Hull House, Chicago, Saul Alinsky’s Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF) in the US and back to Britain with Citizens UK.

The aims of Toynbee Hall were described by Henrietta Barnett as: To learn as much as to teach; to receive as much as to give.

The aims of Hull House were: to provide a center for a high civic and social life; to institute and maintain educational and philanthropic enterprises and investigate and improve the conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago. Jane Addams advocated close co-operation with the neighbourhood people, scientific study of the causes of poverty and persistent pressure for reform.

Saul Alinsky’s Industrial Areas Foundation sees community organising as a power struggle to gain rights for marginalised communities.

Citizens UK organises communities to act together for power, social justice and the common good…We develop the leadership capacity of our members so they can hold politicians and other decision-makers to account on the issues that matter to them…Community organising is democracy in action: winning victories that change lives and transform communities.

This is the first of 2 posts based on a talk given to the East London History Workshop on 19th January 2017.

See also:

Barack Obama community organiser

Jane Addams at Toynbee Hall

Women and the Settlement Movement  by Katharine Bentley Beauman (Radcliffe Press, 1996)

Slumming – Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London by Seth Koven (Princeton, 2006)

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